Germany Demographics

Population of Germany (2023)

View live population, charts & trends: Population of Germany

Germany Population
Yearly Change
Global Share
Global Rank

Median Age

The median age in Germany is 44.9 years (2023).

Fertility in Germany

A Total Fertility Rate (TFR) of 2.1 represents the Replacement-Level Fertility: the average number of children per woman needed for each generation to exactly replace itself without needing international immigration. A value below 2.1 will cause the native population to decline

pregnant_woman Total Fertiliy Rate (TFR)
(Live Births per Woman, 2023)

Life Expectancy in Germany

See also: Countries in the world ranked by Life Expectancy

Both Sexes
82.2 years
(life expectancy at birth, both sexes combined)
84.4 years
(life expectancy at birth, females)
79.9 years
(life expectancy at birth, males)

Infant Mortality Rate and Deaths of Children under 5 Years Old in Germany

Infant Mortality
(infant deaths per 1,000 live births)
Deaths under age 5
(per 1,000 live births)

Germany Urban Population

Currently, 77.1 % of the population of Germany is urban (64,200,283 people in 2023)

Population Density

The 2023 population density in Germany is 239 people per Km2 (619 people per mi2), calculated on a total land area of 348,560 Km2 (134,580 sq. miles).

Largest Cities in Germany

1 Berlin 3,426,354
2 Hamburg 1,739,117
3 Munich 1,260,391
4 Koeln 963,395
5 Frankfurt am Main 650,000
6 Essen 593,085
7 Stuttgart 589,793
8 Dortmund 588,462
9 Duesseldorf 573,057
10 Bremen 546,501
11 Hannover 515,140
12 Leipzig 504,971
13 Duisburg 504,358
14 Nuernberg 499,237
15 Dresden 486,854
16 Wandsbek 411,422
17 Bochum 385,729
18 Bochum-Hordel 380,000
19 Wuppertal 360,797
20 Bielefeld 331,906
21 Bonn 313,125
22 Mannheim 307,960
23 Marienthal 287,101
24 Karlsruhe 283,799
25 Hamburg-Nord 280,000
26 Wiesbaden 272,432
27 Muenster 270,184
28 Gelsenkirchen 270,028
29 Aachen 265,208
30 Moenchengladbach 261,742

See also



Population Pyramid

A Population pyramid (also called "Age-Sex Pyramid") is a graphical representation of the age and sex of a population.


  • Expansive - pyramid with a wide base (larger percentage of people in younger age groups, indicating high birth rates and high fertility rates) and narrow top (high death rate and lower life expectancies). It suggests a growing population. Example: Nigera Population Pyramid
  • Constrictive - pyramid with a narrow base (lower percentage of younger people, indicating declining birth rates with each succeeding age group getting smaller than the previous one). Example: United States
  • Stationary - with a somewhat equal proportion of the population in each age group. The population is stable, neither increasing nor decreasing.



Dependency Ratio

There are three types of age dependency ratio: Youth, Elderly, and Total. All three ratios are commonly multiplied by 100.

Youth Dependency Ratio
Definition: population ages 0-15 divided by the population ages 16-64.
Formula: ([Population ages 0-15] ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

Elderly dependency ratio
Definition: population ages 65-plus divided by the population ages 16-64.
Formula: ([Population ages 65-plus] ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

Total dependency ratio
Definition: sum of the youth and old-age ratios.
Formula: (([Population ages 0-15] + [Population ages 65-plus]) ÷ [Population ages 16-64]) × 100

NOTE: Dependency Ratio does not take into account labor force participation rates by age group. Some portion of the population counted as "working age" may actually be unemployed or not in the labor force whereas some portion of the "dependent" population may be employed and not necessarily economically dependent.